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2000-5-15


Converting DVD to Divx - using MPEG2AVI v1.2

What's New
V1.2 - fixes problems from previous versions and now uses a new GUI. There are also tons of other improvements. This may be the final update for this guide.
V1.1 - added more detailed instructions (in the Troubleshooting sections) need to complete the ripping/conversion process
V1.0 - first release version

CONTENTS

  1. Ripping the Vob
  2. Converting the Video
  3. Converting the Audio
  4. Multiplexing
  5. Troubleshootoing
  6. Appendix

Due to the large influx of problems people have been experiencing, I have decided to rewrite this tutorial to account for the worst case scenario! If you have never tried to convert a DVD before please only use a small DVD clip to test this process. There is nothing worse than spending days working on a project and then finding you have made a mistake that requires you do it all again! You have been warned! I must say that if you are new to DVD to Divx ripping you really should try the Flask Mpeg ripping method first! My method is not easy to do; with Flask Mpeg all you have to do is select your vob files, set the audio and video compression and bingo on a 500 Mhz machine you will have a two hour movie in 18 hours or less =). If all you want is a simple rip just use Flask!

So if Flask Mpeg is so great why bother with any other method? There are only a couple of reasons really. Firstly, in my opinion the the Mpeg2avi converts much faster than Flask Mpeg and with a very slightly better image quality. Also there is less chance of your audio becoming out of synchronization because we must use VirtualDub which is able to fix these problems as they appear. I know you can use Virtual Dub to fix a Flasked file but that's more time wasted. Also, because the audio files are extracted separately from the video file you can have multi-language options added to your Divx. Yes! That's right! A multi-language DVD to Divx rip can be made. It is also possible to add chapter settings, subtitles and the usual point and click graphical interface seen in any DVD! But all this advanced stuff will be dealt with in other tutorials ;) Multi-langage support can be done on a Flasked Divx of course, but that will require knowledge of the sound grabbing methods we will use in this tutorial anyway! On the downside Mpeg2avi is harder to use because its user interface is all typing so you need to use those lame GUI's or you will just have to type in the commands manually!

Note: I give no guarantees that this tutorial is fool proof! If I have made any mistakes please feel free to point them out =).

Anyway here is the revised step by step guide:

Programs you will need

  1. DVD Ripping Tool
  2. AC3-Decode 0.8.1x (or Total Recorder 2.2)
  3. VirtualDub
  4. DanniDin's GUI v 0.18
  5. Divx Codec (3.11alpha or above)
  6. Radium MP3 Codec
  7. Divx profiles

Other optional files needed to fix problems

  1. Ac3fix (optional)
  2. Ac3 cut-frames (optional)
  3. Vobsnoopy (optional)
  4. MpegUtils (optional)
  5. Cool Edit (optional)

Note: Most programs will require that Windows Media Player is installed and fully up to date ie. install the Media Players latest upgrade! You will probably also need Direct X 7.0 installed and Direct X Media (which is different from Direct X and needs to be installed as well).

Step 1. Ripping the VOB files  

This is simple, use DeCSS or DOD Speed Ripper or VOBDec (with the GUI, if you want to) or DeMPAA to copy the VOB files from the DVD CD to your hard drive.

Step 2. Converting the VOB's to Divx Video  

Make sure you have the Divx Codec installed along with all the Windows upgrades mentioned at the start. You may as well install the Radium MP3 Codec here too. Copy the Mpeg2Avi program and the Ac3dec to somewhere on your hard disk preferably the main drive (usually C:). 

Unzip them and put them inside the folder called profiles. This folder is found inside the GUI folder.

Open the GUI and you are faced with this scary looking beast! Don't worry, I'll take you through everything ;). If you look a (A) you will notice there are three buttons. Clicking these swaps between the Mpeg2avi, Ac3Dec and VStrip programs. First thing to do is to press the windows version button (B). Hopefully this should make it compatible with Windows long filenames. Next check the box where it says DivX Auto (C). This automatically sets the bitrate you want so you don't have to keep putting in the same values for each vob file ;). Browse for the location of the MPEG2AVI program by clicking button (D). Browse to find the Vob file you wish to encode by pressing (E). And choose the output location and filename by clicking (F).

Click on the Profiles icon (G) and up pops the pre-made and tested setting for Divx; so now I don't want any complaints about wrong settings =). Choose the profile that you want to use ie. NTSC or PAL; Anamorphic for Wide Screen 16:9 ratio or 4:3 for Normal TV screen ratio etc., then press Load Profile.

Press the Divx Auto button (C) if you haven't already done so and set the Codec Low or High to the bitrate you wish to use. You can play about with these settings if you like to see how it turns out. What Data Rate to choose depends on your finished film length. Obviously the higher the Data Rate the better the finished result. But to fit everything on a single 650 MB CD requires that we use about 900 kBits/s for a 90 minuet film. For a 2 hour film you will require about 650 kBits/s. Once done press Save.

Finally press the Create my AVI button!

Click OK and the following window will appear showing the video compression progress.

How to Encode all Vob Files at Once!

Many people emailed me asking if it was possible to encode all Vob files together with Mpeg2Avi and of course it is. But this method is for people with huge hard drives who can rip the whole DVD onto it and then convert the lot in one go. To do this, open notepad or wordpad or whatever text editor you like and put the names of the files you want to encode together in order like this:

vts_03_1.vob
vts_03_2.vob
vts_03_3.vob
vts_03_4.vob
vts_03_5.vob

Save the file as whatever you like and put a .lst extension on it. For example, save the file as "divx.lst", but please remember to add the quotation marks to force the text editor to save the file as .lst, otherwise it will save it as divx.lst.txt or divx.lst.doc or whatever and it wont work!

Now instead of choosing the Vob file in the input box (E) you just select the divx.lst file instead. All the files inside the list will be encoded and joined together into one whole file!

Converting the Divx Audio  

The audio, strangely enough, has always been the most difficult part of this process. Often you can just use ac3dec as I mentioned in the previous tutorial and it will work fine. However, sometimes you will get some bad audio with garbage in it. I will therefore spend some time explaining the various methods people use to get correct audio. One of the simplest is to use Total Recorder 2.2.

The Total Recorder Audio Method

If you have a copy of Total Recorder 2.2 there is an easy way to grab the audio track with perfect sound from a DVD. Go into Options > 'Recording source parameters...'

Now select the Software accelerated recording/converting option and also check the Max Speed option.

Once you have done this press the red recording button at the bottom. Don't worry it will not record until you start your DVD player. Now open your favorite software player. Put in the DVD you wish to rip the audio from, and also select the language you wish use in its settings. When you are ready press play! The DVD player will suddenly kick into fast motion and within minuets you will have recorded the whole film. The Total Recorder program will automatically stop as soon as the DVD player does making the timing practically perfect! This method can be used to record at fast speed just about any sound that is played on the computer.

When you have finished recording just choose Save as.. and select where you wish to save the wav file. Version 2.2 can record at 48000 hz but using 44100 Hz on the previous version will be just as good for Divx purposes. Once finished go to Step 3. Sticking the Audio & Video Together to see how to make your finished file.

Note: if it starts to work fine and then you get nothing but garbage for sound this is because you have a messed up cracked version of Total Recorder. You need to fully register the version of Total Recorder which requires a serial number for it to work correct. Most cracks will cause this security measure.

The Extracting the AC3 File and using Ac3fix and Ac3dec Method

This is the old method that assumes that you have a bad ac3 file and you need to fix the sound before you can convert it into a wav file. You will know if it is a bad file because it has parts in it where it sounds like the TV white noise. You need to extract the files and fix them individually. To do this run Vobsnoopy and select File > Open and then check the 'Audio *.M2A. *.MPA, *.AC3 or *.Wav' check box. Press okay and select where on your hard drive to save your *.AC3 files. If you have more than one language it will ask you to save each one separately too.

If you don't have Vobsnoopy you can use MpegUtils or Vstrip or whatever you like, but I think Vob Snoopy is the best ;). To use MpegUtil's open the Vob file. Press the Check File button, wait for it to read the file. Now press the Ac3 Demux button and extract the Ac3 file to your hard drive. I won't describe how to use every program because there are too many and there is no need.

Fixing the Extracted AC3 File

To make things even easier for you make another folder on your hard drive called ac3file. Now we must resort to the command line prompt. Sorry, there is no GUI for Ac3 Cut Frame, so now is the best time to learn. Copy the folder AC3-Fix and Ac3 Cut-Frame to your main drive (usually the C: drive). To make things simpler rename the folders to ac3fix and ac3cut so it follows this tutorial correctly. Go to Start Menu > Run and type Command.com to bring the DOS Prompt up ie:

Type the following:

CD\ (and Press Enter)

CD ac3fix (and Press Enter)

ac3fix C:\ac3file\audio00.AC3 C:\ac3file\audio01.AC3

Remember to change the filename to the actual audio file you extracted. If ac3fix encounters any bad frames it will be a corrected. Try this twice since sometimes it will say it is fixed but it wasn't enough. If there are no bad frame you are done and can convert the ac3 audio. If it is still bad run ac3cutframes on it and save the 'fixed' file. Only use ac3cutframes if you really need to because it must clip parts of the audio to fix it. To use ac3cutframes is the same as using ac3fix, type the following using the quotation marks:

"ac3cutframes" C:\ac3file\filename.AC3 C:\ac3file\filename2.AC3

If you cannot understand the above then you shouldn't be trying this method of copying DVD stick to Flask Mpeg!

Converting the Fixed AC3 Audio to Wave

Now lets use the Graphical User Interface (GUI) again for ac3dec. Click on the ac3dec button (1). Select the location of the ac3dec program in the first button of (2). Then select the first .ac3 audio file you wish to encode by clicking the input button (2). And again select where you want to save it (2).

If you select the vob file instead of the .ac3 file you can select the language stream (ie. German, English etc.) if others exist. To do this choose a stream (4). Usually 'Language 0' is English and the next ones are foreign.

By numbering your Vob files in sequence ie. file1.vob; file2.vob; file3.vob etc., and checking the 'Span Over Multiple Vobs Automatically' box (3), it will convert all the Vobs audio files into one large audio file ;).

However, if you had to extract the ac3 audio file to fix it, you cannot now choose the Vob file to convert its audio to a .wav file. Instead you must change the extension (encircled in red) to .ac3 and choose the fixed ac3 file thusly:

When done, choose the 'Create my Wav' button.

Up pops the Audio compression settings. Choose PCM 48.000 Hz 16 Bit, Stereo. Click OK.

The following window describes your progress:

Note: Unless you put a .wav extension on your output file the computer will spend an hour converting the audio and then you will loose it all! You have now been warned call it something.wav!

That's it! You now have a Divx Video and a separate audio file.

Merging Left over Audio

Depending on how well you have planned matters you may need to merge loose audio files that you have converted to wave files. Don't do this if you have a single video file for each audio file. Only do this if you have the entire film on video and need the entire audio to be merged into a single one to match it ;). Your gonna need an audio editing program like Soundforge or Cool Edit to do this. Run Cool Edit and open the first file you have in the list of wav files that you wish to merge. Then open the next file in the list by choosing the option 'Open Append...'. Keep adding the files with 'Open Append' until you have a finished audio that can be saved.

One Final Check

Sometimes in spite of all your efforts the audio still contains crap. So open it again in Cool Edit or whatever program you use and delete the garbled noise. That's the best you are gonna get! Now lets go onto the last task of merging it all into a finished Divx CD!

 

Step 3. Sticking the Audio & Video Together  

Run VirtualDub and open the Divx video file you just made.

Go to the Video settings and select Direct stream copy.

Choose Frame Rate > Change so video and audio duration's match. Click OK.

Choose the Audio Compression option > MPEG Layer-3. Click Show all formats and select 96 kBit/s, 44,100 Hz, Stereo (you can also go as high as 128 or as low as 64 kBits/s if you wish).

Go to the Audio settings. Make sure it is set to WAV audio and select Full processing mode.

Finally, choose Save AVI and select where you wish to save it on your hard disk.

The following box will appear showing details of its progress. In about 10 to 15 minuets your final Divx will be complete. To speed up this process you can also select a higher priority in the processing thread priority box (circled in red).

Congratulations, you now have a finished Divx video file ;o). Do the same to each Vob file you have extracted to make them all into Divx video files.

Joining the Files

DVD's usually split the movie on the disk into between 4 and 6 separate gigabyte chunks. People with huge hard disks often merge VOB files together before they compress the DVD to Divx but this is not necessary for us or even desired because merging large files in Windows can cause difficulty. We will now use Virtual Dub to merge these smaller DivX files together into a single video.

Note: I used to say use Pecks Power Join to merge AVI's, but I have come to realize that I had only tested it with very small files - duh! So don't bother with Peck it messes up with large files! Virtual Dub is a great program and you would do well to learn to use it properly. It is so cool that every programmer seems to be taking its code and using it to make new applications with! If you ever come across a problem I'd bet any money your gonna need Virtual Dub to sort it out ;-P.

Open the first .avi file you wish to join ie. file1.avi

Now select Append video segment and then open the second .avi file you wish to join ie. file2.avi

Choose append video segment again and open the third .avi file you wish to join ;) and so on until you have selected every .avi file in order. Next choose Video > Direct stream copy and Audio > Direct stream copy.

Now select Save segmented AVI... and choose where to save it.

Up pops the progress box. Choose even higher if you want to do it faster.

After about ten minuets you will have a completely finished DivX movie small enough to fit on a single CD-R. Phew!

 

Troubleshooting  

What to Do If the Audio Still Isn't Synchronized?

Fix 1: If the audio is only very slightly out you are able to make it sit nicely by trying the following method. Open Virtual Dub and go to the Audio > Interleaving options and set it to Preload to 1000 ms of audio and interleave audio after every 250 frames. Don't change the source displacement at the moment. Click OK. Remember to check the ms box (circled in red) which I forgot about last time ;-\. Save to AVI and check it again. If it is still out, change the interleave audio box by another +100 or -100 ms.

Fix 2: If the audio is still badly out, there is a way to slide the audio in one direction to get it to fit into the correct place. Go to Audio > Interleaving again but now put a time delay in the source displacement box. 1000 represents a seconds worth of audio displacement. If you hear sound one second after the characters move their mouths set a delay of 1000. If it is half a second use a 500 delay. For a quarter of a second it would be 250 delay and so on. If, on the other hand, you hear sound before they speak then you can use minus numbers ie. -1000 is a displacement of minus one second. Remember to check at various places in the movie to make sure it they synchronize everywhere. Good Luck!

Fix 3: The very last resort! This is if the audio is really really badly off! You can try and open the wave file in Cool Edit or any sound editing program and stretch the audio slightly to match the film's length. Check the film length by opening it in Virtual Dub and going to File > File Information... and make a note of the exact length! Now open the file in Cool Edit and got to Transform > Time/Pitch Stretch... and type in the 'Length' box the movies play time. The wave file will now stretch to fit the movie, but you'd still be lucky to get the audio to merge ;(.

PAL, NTSC and FILM Settings

I have heard more than once now that Mpeg2avi has yet another bug in it! Apparently unless you choose 30 fps it will not process all the frames in the file! I have never had a problem with this but maybe that's because all my DVD's are PAL? Anyway, if you find this is the case here is what you may have to do. Choose 30fps and make your DivX AVI file. Then use the Framerate Converter utility to set the new frame rate to 23.970! Now it should play correctly again. It is easy enough to reset the frame rate in the GUI so I do not need to do another tutorial on that one. Thanks to Kiwi128 for that tip ;o).

Dull Audio Tracks

Because many sound cards cannot handle 48000 Hz very well you may find that any method you use to extract the sound will give a fairly dull sound output. This can be prevented by converting the audio to 44100 Hz in Virtual Dub at the same time that you multiplex the audio and video files together. To do this open Virtual Dub as usual and choose Audio > Conversion and set the check box to 44100hz and High Quality as seen below:

Then follow the usual method to convert the audio and video together from here.

Large Files and FAT16/32

Be careful when dealing with large files! The Windows 95/8 file system cannot handle AVI files larger than 4 gigabytes! There has been much confusion regarding this issue. In short, the old Windows File Allocation Tables (FAT16) cannot store more than 2 gigabytes per file. Windows 98's FAT32 allows a 4 gigabyte storage capacity per single file. So where does the 1 and 2 gig storage limit come in? Most AVI parsers use something called signed arithmetic. This forces a storage limit of 2 gigabytes for .avi files on Windows 98. But the multimedia system in Windows 95 cannot cope with RIFF files (such as .avi files) bigger than 1 gigabyte! And this is why people will say there is either a 1, 2 or 4 gigabyte limit on single file storage. This is why DeCSS, DOD Power Ripper, Vob Merge, Peck Power Join and all other programs like this are incapable of storing more than 4 gigabytes on most peoples computer systems! I think this is the chief reason for so many unexplained error messages when using these programs too!

There is a partial way around this that is used extensively by Virtual Dud called OpenDML. These settings can be used to create very large .avi files by grouping smaller files together so they are forced to play in sequence. This solution means that the finished files can only be played with Windows Media Player or other programs that support OpenDML.

I have found that the safest way to merge large files together is to use the Virtual Dub's appending options as described above. I no longer advocate using Pecks Power Join or any other joining method for Mpeg-4 files other than using Virtual Dub to restream them. In my experience there is NOTHING, no program in existence that can merge large mpeg-4 AVI in the way Peck Power Join can merge small AVI files.until someone makes it that is =).

Disappearing Boxes?!

I have had so many people email me telling me that as soon as they press the give me my audio or video button on AVGUI, the black box flashes up and then disappears again resulting in no conversions! This is not a problem with the programs themselves. They are DOS programs and DOS programs usually cannot read the Windows long filenames. Hence they give a 'cannot find file' error that will close the program! The solution is to NEVER name your files or folders with names longer than eight letters! To be safe you should make sure that you only use letters and numbers in your names and also only in lower case. For example, you can safely rename each vob file to: file1.vob, file2.vob, file3.vob and so on. You can put them in a folder on your main drive (usually the C: drive) in a folder called divx or something like that. Do not put this folder inside any other folders unless they have eight or less characters in their names! This should solve all your problems.

Multi-Language DVD's

Sometimes with Multi-Language DVD's the film has been recorded at least twice! Some Disney films have been known to do this. If this is the case do the following. Use the program MpegUtils to analyze ALL the VOB's. Use the Check VOB button and then split by Vob ID. Now look for the VOB files that have about the same sizes and play a bit of each. These files usually will contain the same part of the movie but one will be in another language. One is for the English version, one is for the French, German and so on. Delete all the unwanted language VOB's and merge the rest in the right order using the program Vobmerge. Remake the DVD structure thusly vts_01_1.vob ; vts_01_2.vob ; vts_01_3.vob etc. Bingo, perfect audio!

Interactive DVD's

Interactive DVD's are not too common at the moment but when one such as The Matrix comes along it presents all kinds of problems. You must treat them as you would a Multi-Language DVD. You must use MpegUtils to split the VOB files up and look at each clip to try and figure out where they should go. Once you have them in the correct order just VobMerge them together and bingo! The following example is how The Matrix was solved thanks to Asyd Rayne:

You must open each file individually with MPEGUtils and click "Check File". Then click "Split VOB". Make sure you set it to Split by VOB ID in the popup window. Then you can delete your original VOB file. To fix The Matrix just delete the following files highlighted in Red and you will have a perfect version.

Region 1 DVD CD of the Matrix

If you have a Region 1 DVD CD of the Matrix you may need to delete the following files:

Vts_02_1.vob splits into the following:

  • Vob01.vob (Warner Bro's Intro Optional)
  • Vob02.vob
  • Vob03.vob
  • Vob04.vob delete
  • Vob05.vob
  • Vob06.vob

Vts_02_1.vob splits into the following:

  • Vob06.vob
  • Vob07.vob
  • Vob08.vob delete
  • Vob09.vob
  • Vob10.vob
  • Vob11.vob
  • Vob12.vob delete
  • Vob13.vob

Vts_02_3.vob splits into the following:

  • Vob12.vob delete
  • Vob13.vob
  • Vob14.vob

Vts_02_4.vob splits into the following:

  • Vob15.vob
  • Vob16.vob
  • Vob17.vob delete
  • Vob18.vob
  • Vob19.vob
  • Vob20.vob
  • Vob21.vob delete
  • Vob22.vob
  • Vob23.vob

Vts_02_5.vob splits into the following:

  • Vob23.vob
  • Vob24.vob
  • Vob25.vob delete
  • Vob26.vob
  • Vob27.vob
  • Vob28.vob
  • Vob29.vob delete
  • Vob30.vob
  • Vob31.vob
  • Vob32.vob
  • Vob33.vob delete
  • Vob34.vob
  • Vob35.vob
  • Vob36.vob
  • Vob37.vob delete
  • Vob38.vob
  • Vob39.vob

Vts_02_6.vob doesn't need to be changed:

 

Region 2 DVD CD of the Matrix

If you have a Region 2 DVD CD of the Matrix you may need to use the following settings. But make sure the finished result is correct before you convert it to Divx.

Vts_02_1.vob splits into the following:

  • Vob01.vob (Warner Bro's Intro Optional)
  • Vob02.vob
  • Vob03.vob
  • Vob04.vob delete
  • Vob05.vob
  • Vob06.vob

Vts_02_1.vob splits into the following:

  • Vob06.vob
  • Vob07.vob
  • Vob08.vob delete
  • Vob09.vob
  • Vob10.vob
  • Vob11.vob
  • Vob12.vob delete
  • Vob13.vob
  • Vob14.vob

Vts_02_3.vob this file doesn't need to be altered.

Vts_02_4.vob splits into the following:

  • Vob15.vob
  • Vob16.vob
  • Vob17.vob delete
  • Vob18.vob
  • Vob19.vob
  • Vob20.vob
  • Vob21.vob delete
  • Vob22.vob
  • Vob23.vob

Vts_02_5.vob splits into the following:

  • Vob23.vob
  • Vob24.vob
  • Vob25.vob delete
  • Vob26.vob
  • Vob27.vob
  • Vob28.vob
  • Vob29.vob delete
  • Vob30.vob
  • Vob31.vob
  • Vob32.vob
  • Vob33.vob delete
  • Vob34.vob
  • Vob35.vob

Vts_02_6.vob splits into the following:

  • Vob35.vob
  • Vob36.vob
  • Vob37.vob delete
  • Vob38.vob
  • Vob39.vob
  • Vob40.vob

Appendix  

High Motion Vs Low Motion Codec's

What is the difference between the two codec's I hear you cry! Well, the only real difference is that High Motion codec is a variable codec which changes the amount of compression depending on the motion. In high action movies you will notice that the picture will tend to break up into squares as soon as things move across the screen very fast. But while everything is still it looks perfect. The high motion codec tries to use LESS compression on the fast action scenes to prevent the blokieness from happening. But the Low Motion Codec always uses the same compression throughout the whole movie.

In theory it sounds like the High Motion is the best codec! Sadly there are a few problems which make it second choice for most. Firstly, because the compression changes so often it is difficult to guess what the finished file size would be. This means you could end up with a file much bigger than you intended. Secondly, this High Motion codec tends to be more jerky. I don't know if this is merely Media Player's fault or just a problem with the codec. Nevertheless, because it is variable, the bitrate on the High Motion Codec can very roughly speaking be set to double that of the Low Motion to produce a similar filesize. So if you use 700 kbit/s Low Motion codec to make a single CD film, you could probably get away with 1400 kbit/s with the High Motion.

Common Mpeg2Avi Command Lines

If you just want to type in the commands here are some common settings. Perhaps they will help you get used how the program works better. Change the first (red) line to the input Vobs location and name and the second (blue) filename to where you want the output to go. If you want a sequence of files choose your .lst file instead of the .vob file ;) Also changing the green -f0 command to -f2 will turn the NTSC into PAL settings.

  • PAL is: -f2 (25.000 = 25/1)
  • NTSC is: -f0 (23.976 = 24,000/1001)
  • 16:9 (1.851) settings are: 640 x 360 with the Downsizing X= 656 Y = 368 ie. command: -3X 656 -3Y 368
  • 16:9 (2.33.1) settings are: 640 x 360 with the Downsizing Y=416 ie. Command: -3Y 416
NTSC 16:9 (1.85.1)
MPEG2AVI -b C:\filename.vob -f0 -q0 -r2 -3X 656 -3Y 368 -1 640 360 -o8 C:\filename.avi
NTSC 16:9 (2.33.1)
MPEG2AVI -b C:\filename.vob -f0 -q0 -r2 -3Y 416 -1 640 304 -o8 C:\filename.avi
NTSC 4:3 (Full Frame)
MPEG2AVI -b C:\filename.vob -f0 -q0 -r2 -3X 520 -3Y 392 -1 512 384 -o8 C:\filename.avi

 

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